Violence and gender

Sage Publications is offering free access to journal articles up until April 30th. Here are two related to violence and gender:

A gendered assessment of the “threat of victimization”: Examining gender differences in fear of crime, perceived risk, avoidance, and defense behaviors  – by May, Rader, and Goodrum

Abstract

Rader has called for a change in how researchers study fear of crime, suggesting that fear of crime, perceptions of risk, and experiences with victimization are interrelated dimensions of the larger ‘‘threat of victimization’’ concept. In this study, the authors examine how each independent dimension affects additional theoretical dimensions of the ‘‘threat of victimization’’ and how these relationships vary by gender. Using data from residents of Kentucky, the authors estimate a series of multivariate linear and logistic regression models. The findings presented here suggest that gender differences do exist in the components of the threat of victimization and that many of the relationships in the Rader model are multifaceted, including the relationship between perceived risk, fear of crime, and avoidance and defensive behaviors. Implications of these findings for future research regarding predictors of the threat of victimization are discussed.

Interesting:

Women are much more likely to self-report fear of crime than men, even though they are less likely, according to official data, to experience victimization (with the exceptions of sexual assault, domestic violence, stalking, and sexual harassment). This discrepancy is often called the ‘‘gender-fear paradox’’ because women’s fear of crime is incongruent with the reality of their criminal victimization (Ferraro, 1996). These elevated fear levels increase womens’ perceptions of risk and may cause women to be more likely to engage in constrained behaviors…

Gendered violence:  An analysis of the maquiladora murders  – by Katherine Pantaleo

Abstract

This study analyzes the social construction of a wave of female homicides surrounding the maquiladora plants in Ciudad Juarez, Mexico. Specifically, it explores the social construction ofthe murders by three different groups, the news media, human rights organizations, and academic researchers. The research begins with a content analysis of 35 narratives from newspapers,human rights reports, and academic journals. Sixteen of these narratives discuss North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) in relation with the violence in Juarez. Analysis indicates that gender issues are intertwined with the trade agreement and concludes that the policy has aided in the disruption of the social fabric of Mexican society.

Results for Newspaper Articles

Overall, the newspaper articles do not include language such as femicide, maquiladora murder, violence toward women, and impunity nor do they suggest action or link the murders to anothersocial problem. None of the newspaper articles in the sample addressed the murders as femicidesor maquiladora murders. The perpetrators were mostly described as male serial killers. Four articlesaddressed the murders acts of violence against women, while three addressed the continuation of the murders, suggesting impunity. Finally, only one article discussed another social problem in conjunction with the maquiladora murders. A 1995 article from the Austin American Statesman described two accounts of serial killings. First, it mentioned the serial killings by a Cuban cult leader in 1989 and second it mentioned serial killings of eight teen girls in 1991. Both incidents occurred near Juarez. This particular article was the first to report the maquiladora murders.

 

The sample of newspaper narratives consisted of publications from as early as 1995 up until 2005. Even though the Austin American Statesman covered the murders in 1995, they were not yet known as the maquiladora murders, referred to as femicides, or portrayed as a major social problem. The continual coverage of the murders suggests that over the years, the maquiladora murders developed as an item of interest for the press. In addition, while the newspaper headlines focused mostly on the murders themselves, thewords chosen to describe themurders portrayed a sense of crisis. This is likely due to the nature of newspapers and their attempt to sensationalize stories. For example, some of thewords/phrases used are killing spree, unsolved murders, rape and murder, brutal Mexico killings, serial killings, women’s killings, Mexico’s murders, epidemic, and slayings. Despite the fact that the headlines focus most on the murders, the newspaper articles themselves mention the victims, perpetrators, and causes almost equally throughout the sample. Generally, the newspapers portray the murders as gendered sexual serial killings primarily perpetuated and caused by corruption of the criminal justice system. This is a significant contribution to defining the murders as a social problem. Specifically, the newspapers provide a visual aid that the public can use to define or construct the problem themselves. Newspaper claims-makers provide a framework for the development of a social problem, but it is up to the public to decide on the existence of a social problem. The human rights organizations and the peer-reviewed journal articles have a more specific target audience than do newspapers. This is one of the most significant differences between newspaper narratives and the narratives of human rights organizations and peer-reviewed journal articles that affects how they present their perspectives.

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Only one thing in common?

2 Prior Long Island Serial Killers Also Stalked Escorts

One smoked crack with his victims before bludgeoning them to death in his apartment. Another was caught after a police chase that ended in a crash outside the courthouse where he was later convicted of murder.

Now, a new Long Island serial killer has dumped at least four bodies near Gilgo Beach in December while forensic scientists work to identify four more sets of human remains found recently and police continue to search for more bodies possibly hidden in the brush.

All three murderers have one thing in common: They all targeted prostitutes…
Actually, what they all had in common was they targeted FEMALES. Males and transgender folks can prostitute, too, the serial killers didn’t target them, they targeted females.
 
At the very end, they say this:
 
“He’s targeting women who are either using drugs or engaging in prostitution or both, which are the traditional victims of serial killers because they’re usually loners that are not going to be missed by their families and they’re not going to put up much of a struggle,” Klein said of the current serial killer.
If writers are going to write about killers that target women – at least they should focus on that in the article (not save it for last) and put Violence Against Women into context.

Gender Terrorism

I came across the term ‘gender terrorism’ while reading about acid attacks in Bangladesh – it seems like an appropriate name to call it – and other atrocities, based on so many of the forms of torture, injury and murder women and girls face. Here’s the article:

Bangladesh praised for reducing acid attacks

Whether the attacks follow a perceived wrongdoing or are simply the response of a spurned suitor, thousands of women in the South Asian region around Bangladesh have had sulphuric acid sprayed or poured onto their faces, eliminating facial features, causing blindness and fusing skin together, forcing them into a life of health problems and social isolation.

(Sometimes the acid is directed towards their genitals, as well.) 

Do you remember the case of the woman in the US who splashed acid onto her own face in order to get sympathy? It made national news – however, the media failed to take advantage of this time to talk about acid attacks against women (and sometimes men – usually pertaining to land disputes) in the world. The same thing happened when the woman (named Babbat, I believe) cut her husband’s penis – there was more attention over the cutting of this ONE man’s penis than the cutting of millions of girls’ clitorises.

Here’s another article similar in nature to the first:

Set on Fire – New Form of Sexist Violence in Argentina

Victims of femicide in Argentina are stabbed, strangled, shot, drowned, beaten to death — and more recently, set on fire.

In 65 percent of the cases of femicide, the murderer is the woman’s partner or ex-partner. And many of the killings occur after the courts have ordered the partner to leave the home or have issued a restraining order to keep him away from the victim of domestic violence.

Last year “we saw a veritable epidemic of women who ‘accidentally’ caught on fire,” Fabiana Tuñez, who heads La Casa del Encuentro, told IPS, pointing out that the number of cases rose from six in 2009 to 11 in 2010. 

 

 

BELIEVE WOMEN

When I attended John Jay College’s femicide conference last year, the presenters said we could prevent femicides by responding to women’s fear or threat levels. Great, I thought, now how do we get people to believe them?

Women’s claims of abuse and fear are often disbelieved or worse, perceived as acts of vengeance towards their partners.

Here’s one of many articles on a woman’s plea for protection. They were ignored. The result? She was trapped inside a geographical prison, disbelieved, forced to go into counseling with her aggressor, killed (along with her mother)…

Three people are now dead. The ex-husband killed himself and left their 2-year-old orphaned.

These senseless deaths could have been prevented.

Woman wanted to flee with son before apparent murder-suicide

A Peoria mother whose body was found Friday had recently tried to leave Arizona after receiving threats from her apparent slayer, but a judge denied her request, court records show. Two weeks before she was killed, Dawn Axsom pleaded with Judge Jose Padilla of Maricopa County Superior Court to let her leave Arizona with her son because she feared Gabriel Schwartz, the toddler’s father, would harm her or their boy. Padilla denied the 26-year-old’s request and ordered the pair to attend parental counseling together. Axsom’s body was found in her Peoria residence Friday. Police also found the bodies of Schwartz, 28, and Lisa Braden, 56, Axsom’s mother. Schwartz is suspected of shooting and killing both women before turning the gun on himself, Peoria police spokesman Mike Tellef said Monday. Tellef said the violence likely began in the downstairs kitchen, where Schwartz shot Braden. Then, Schwartz went upstairs, shooting Axsom in the master bathroom and killing himself in a bedroom. Police discovered the grisly scene at about 10 a.m. Friday after Axsom didn’t show up for work and a friend and the friend’s mother went to the home, located in the 7400 block of West Sierra Street, to check on her. When the friend knocked on the door, she heard Axsom and Schwartz’s nearly 2-year-old boy crying upstairs. The woman called police, who arrived and found the child unharmed inside his crib. “When the officer took the baby outside, he covered (the child’s) eyes so he couldn’t see anything,” Tellef said, recounting the scene. Friends and co-workers who gathered outside Axsom’s residence Friday said she was having ongoing custody problems with Schwartz and expressed frustration that the court system wouldn’t let her leave Arizona when she knew Schwartz might harm her. Court records show Padilla granted Axsom a protective order against Schwartz four days before the Oct. 6 hearing where he ordered her to attend parental counseling with him and denied her request to relocate to Maryland with the pair’s son. Axsom’s son was placed into the custody of state Child Protective Services.

“Nice guy” kills wife

Jeez, they just never stop, do they?

‘Well-liked Palm Beach County employee kills wife:  “She was cheating on me. I caught her and now it’s done.”

This article begins with the headline “well-liked” county employee shoots cheating wife. Well-liked? How many murderers get such nice treatment from the media? Only if they’re white, middle class and male (am I missing any other characteristics?) The wife, who was just shot dead by this killer in front of their 9-year-old daughter, is branded a cheater. Do they have proof of that? 

And custody of the child? Yeah, she goes to the killer’s parents. They did such a good job raising him, didn’t they? Killer’s determine custody. Jailed convicts determine custody. They kill their wives and get custody of their children. Where is the justice?

Work place violence or gender-based violence?

I swear that Raymond Clark would never have killed a male colleague in that lab department – this case is not work place violence, it’s gender-based violence:

Chief: Police may never know Yale killing motive

A law enforcement official who talked to the AP on condition of anonymity because the investigation was ongoing and many details remained sealed said Thursday that co-workers called Clark a “control freak” who was territorial about the mice whose cages he cleaned. Authorities are investigating whether that attitude might have set off a clash between Clark and Le.

The guy had a history of being controlling with women –

Neighbor: Raymond Clark ‘very controlling’ of girlfriend

At Clark’s previous residence at a New Haven apartment where he and Hromadka lived until spring, downstairs neighbor Annmarie Goodwin had nothing but bad things to say about Clark.

She said Clark was “very controlling” of his girlfriend, and that he once screamed at her 17-year-old son and unleashed a curse-laden tirade at him.

This is another girlfriend –

Anne Le case: Ex-girlfriend of Raymond Clark says he forced her to have sex 

 

An ex-girlfriend of Raymond Clark filed a police report in 2003 regarding a high school dispute between the two, according to a police report uncovered by the New Haven Independent.

He has a past that involves controlling and harassing women and the media stress this is work place violence. I don’t buy it.